The Lesson
An operation takes values and calculates a new value from them.Dictionary Definition
The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines an operation as "any of various mathematical or logical processes (such as addition) of deriving one entity from others according to a rule. Multiplication is one mathematical operation."The Basic Operations
The most common operations take two values and calculates a new value from them. The basic operations in arithmetic are:- Addition +.
- Subtraction −.
- Multiplication ×.
- Division ÷.
Addition
Takes two numbers and adds them together.Subtraction
Takes two numbers and subtracts the number on the right from the number on the left.Multiplication
Takes two numbers and multiplies them.Division
Takes two numbers and divides the number on the left by the number on the right.More Operations
Some operations take one value and calculates a new value from them.- Exponents
- Negation
- Reciprocal
Exponents
An exponent tells you how many times a number (or other quantity) is multiplied by itself.Square
For example, an exponent of 2 means squaring a number.The opposite of squaring a number is finding the square root.
Square Root
An exponent of ^{1}⁄_{2} means finding the square root of a number. The square root of a number, when multiplied by itself, gives that number.Negation
Negation finds the negative value of a number. For example, negating 2 produces −2.Reciprocal
The reciprocal of a number is the result of dividing 1 by that number. For example, the reciprocal of 2 is calculated by dividing 1 by 2.The Parts of Operations
- The numbers operated upon are called operands.
- The symbol which shows what type of operation is taking place is called the operator.
The Arity of Operations
The arity of operations is given by how many operands there are. The most common operations are binary operations, which have an arity of 2. There are 2 operands. Addition is a binary operation:
2 + 3 → 5
A unary operation has an arity of 1. There is only 1 operand.
Negation is a unary operation:
−(2) → −2