The Mathematical Symbol "Volume Integral (∰)"

The ∰ Symbol in Mathematics: The Volume Integral

In the expansive world of mathematical notation, the ∰ symbol designates the "Volume Integral". Integral calculus is a fundamental branch of mathematics, and among the myriad of integrals, the volume integral holds a special place. It's particularly relevant when dealing with three-dimensional spaces.


The ∰ symbol is utilized to represent integrals that span over a volume in three-dimensional space. Typically, when dealing with functions of three variables, the volume integral sums up all the function values over a certain volume. It provides a measure of the total magnitude of the function across that volume.


  • Example 1: Consider a function \( f(x, y, z) \) defined in a region \( V \) of space. The volume integral can be represented as:
    \( \int\int\int_V f(x, y, z) \, dx \, dy \, dz \).
    Here, the ∰ essentially stands for the three integrals, representing integration with respect to x, y, and z over the volume V.
  • Example 2: Imagine we're trying to find the total electric charge within a specific volume. If the charge density at a point is represented by \( \rho(x, y, z) \), the total charge in volume \( V \) is given by:
    \( Q = \int\int\int_V \rho(x, y, z) \, dx \, dy \, dz \).

In summary, the ∰ symbol, or the volume integral, is indispensable in mathematics, especially in fields like physics and engineering. Its utility allows researchers and scientists to accumulate quantities over three-dimensional spaces, fostering deeper insights into spatial phenomena.

Mathematical symbol 'Volume Integral'

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Codes for the ∰ Symbol

The Symbol
Alt CodeAlt 8752
HTML Code∰
HTML Entity∰
CSS Code\2230
Hex Code∰

How To Insert the ∰ Symbol

(Method 1) Copy and paste the symbol.

The easiest way to get the ∰ symbol is to copy and paste it into your document.

Bear in mind that this is a UTF-8 encoded character. It must be encoded as UTF-8 at all stages (copying, replacing, editing, pasting), otherwise it will render as random characters or the dreaded �.

(Method 2) Use the "Alt Code."

If you have a keyboard with a numeric pad, you can use this method. Simply hold down the Alt key and type 8752. When you lift the Alt key, the symbol appears. ("Num Lock" must be on.)

(Method 3) Use the HTML Decimal Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#8752;</b>My symbol: ∰

(Method 4) Use the HTML Entity Code (for webpages).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &Cconint;</b>My symbol: ∰

(Method 5) Use the CSS Code (for webpages).

CSS and HTML TextOutput
span:after {
content: "\2230";}
<span>My symbol:</span>
My symbol: ∰

(Method 6) Use the HTML Hex Code (for webpages and HTML canvas).

HTML TextOutput
<b>My symbol: &#x2230;</b>My symbol: ∰
On the assumption that you already have your canvas and the context set up, use the Hex code in the format 0x2230 to place the ∰ symbol on your canvas. For example:
JavaScript Text
const x = "0x"+"E9"
ctx.fillText(String.fromCodePoint(x), 5, 5);

(Method 7) Use the Unicode (for various, e.g. Microsoft Office, JavaScript, Perl).

The Unicode for ∰ is U+2230. The important part is the hexadecimal number after the U+, which is used in various formats. For example, in Microsoft Office applications (e.g. Word, PowerPoint), do the following:
[Hold down Alt]
[Press x]

(The 2230 turns into ∰. Note that you can omit any leading zeros.)
In JavaScript, the syntax is \uXXXX. So, our example would be \u2230. (Note that the format is 4 hexadecimal characters.)
JavaScript TextOutput
let str = "\u2230"
document.write("My symbol: " + str)
My symbol: ∰